Āyurveda translated from Sanskrit means “knowledge of life and longevity”.
Stemming from India, Ayurveda is the most ancient study of benevolent flora in the world. Ayurveda developed significantly during the vedic period while scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times. The main classical Ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, and then to human physicians.
Ayurveda describes three elemental Doṣhas viz. Vāta, Pitta and Kapha, and state that equality (Sāmyatva) of the Doṣhas results in health, while inequality (Viṣamatva) results in disease, where balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness.
One Ayurvedic view is that the Doṣhas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the Doṣhas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behaviour or environment to increase or decrease the Doṣhas and maintain their natural state.
Ayurveda has historically divided bodily substances into five classical elements, (Panchamahabhuta), viz. Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether. There are also twenty Gunas which are considered to be inherent in all matter. These are organized in ten pairs: heavy/ light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/ coarse, minute/gross, and viscous/liquid.
Ayurvedic doctors regard physical existence, mental existence, and personality as their own units, with each element being able to influence the others. This is a holistic approach used during diagnosis and therapy, and the fundamental aspect of Ayurveda.